The CDA Perspectives Blog by CDA Collaborative Learning Projects

Did You Hear Someone Say “Resolution” in Lebanon?

August 12, 2013 | Jean-Paul Chami

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I have been working in the field of peace and conflict in Lebanon for the past 7 years– teaching, training and listening. One of the main challenges of my work is that different people associate different meanings and mental images with key-words I use daily, like peace, conflict and resolution.Unless I dedicate time and attention to detect nuances in what people say, I will fail as a peacebuilding practitioner.

It’s common knowledge that using headquarters’ terminology when trying to build the capacities for peace of people out in the field doesn’t get you anywhere. Yet I found that when I am at work, the challenge of transmitting ideas is deeper and the solution is more elusive than I would have thought. In the field, I switch easily between Arabic, French and English – but the people I am conversing with usually cannot.

The people I work with speak the Lebanese dialect of Arabic. In this context it is tricky to explain, rather than just translate the concepts of, and differences between, the terms “conflict resolution”, “conflict management” and “conflict transformation.”

Usually “conflict resolution” would be translated into the Arabic term hal al niza’. However, that term brings people’s expectations too high – as it indicates that conflicts can be solved quickly with the aid of clear-cut solutions and ready-made answers.

When the word tahweel, Arabic for “transformation”, is coupled with the Arabic word for conflict it results in a term – taweel al niza’ – which makes no sense in the Lebanese dialect.

The inspiring solution came from a 14-year-old girl. Two years ago I was asked by World Vision Lebanon to deliver training sessions to Lebanese and Palestinian youth from different parts of Lebanon.

At the time I developed a habit of unofficially “polling” people I would meet for words they would use to describe the concept of conflict resolution. As I engaged this group of teenagers with that question, a young girl looked at me and said: “So is what you are trying to say halhalat al niza’?”.

In colloquial Lebanese Halhalat is used to describe an attempt to slowly, gently, carefully find a solution. Most commonly it would be used to describe the action of uncorking a bottle by turning the cork slightly to the left – and then again to the right, and so on and so forth, in order to get the cork out without it breaking. Similarly, yet less charmingly, the word Halhalat is used by plumbers to describe attempts of unscrewing eroded pipes that could crumble if handled roughly.

Ever since, I have been using the newly coined term halhalat al niza’ when I talk about conflict resolution in Lebanon. So far, whenever I introduce myself and my goals I feel that people understand what I came to do increasingly better.

Tips for finding the right words:

1- Spend time in the field listening for the right words.

2- Be sensitive to locals’ words-images-sounds associations.

3- Remember that many of these associations were created at times of high intensity conflicts. Simple words can carry heavy emotional weight and collective history by invoking either legitimacy or mistrust.

4- Simple is better: the more basic the word, the better.

People say that actions speak louder than words. Yet we still entrust words with the main task of getting our message out – we must ensure that we are saying things right.

Have you encountered similar challenges of translating ideas across-languages and across-contexts? What solutions have you found? Did listening to local conversations help you to find the right words?

About the author

Jean-Paul Chami is a Peacebuilding Consultant & Trainer in Lebanon working with UNDP and other International and Local civil society organizations. He is also a language-enthusiast who greatly enjoys cooking. Jean-Paul first recounted this story when he attended CDA’s two week long Reflecting on Peace Practice Master Training this July – while sitting at the lunch table with CDA Program Associate Jasmine Walovitch.


  1. Amanullah Hotak

    I like the article describing the challenges that Mr. Jean-Paul Chami experienced during his work in Lebanon. In my country, Afghanistan, I encountered the same challenges with the language when listening to local conversations to help us find the right word or expression for the term ‘Positive Deviance’.
    It is very informative and useful article for those who have the same commitment and environment.
    Amanullah Hotak, from Kabul-Afghanistan

    • Jean-Paul Chami

      Dear Amanullah,
      Thank you for sharing your thoughts on this. With every passing day, I am realizing the importance of choosing the right local dialect words when presenting projects and activities. Words need to be chosen carefully so that they deliver the right meaning to the communities we are serving and not lure them into expecting things that do not coincide with what our projects can deliver, as this could be a major source of frustration to them. In the case of the field of peacebuilding and conflict transformation or resolution, or management, or transcendence, or mitigation, etc.. things get to be even more complicated as this type of work is extremely sensitive and, is usually, of a long term nature. Many communities would expect to see their problems “solved” “or dissolved” in few months time while we would be expecting them to address their conflicts differently and to establish a new way/culture of handling them, a kind of change which would normally take a minimum of 3 years. A lot of other elements of course end up being lost in translation.
      Jean-Paul Chami, from Beirut, Lebanon

  2. Jasmine Walovitch

    Amanullah Hotak, Jean-Paul and I are very glad to hear that his experience in Lebanon resonated with you. Dayna Brown, the Director of the Listening Program wanted to share with you some insight on how the Listening Program thinks about the term “positive deviants” – which hopefully could help you think about alternative ways to translate it.

    I would also suggest that you read the Afghanistan listening exercise, if you have not already. You can read it online for free on our website: .

    Thank you for sharing your challenges with us – we will do our best to bring more such stories into the spotlight on our blog. If you ever figure out a better way to translate “positive deviants” – let us know, we would love to share your experience with the rest of our readers.

    All the best, Jasmine.

    “Positive deviants” is a term that I first heard in nutrition programs in Indonesia, and was part of the “Hearth” methodology for improving nutrition of children in slum areas. I know it has been used in other areas too and is a hard one to explain.

    The Listening Program is now looking for organizations and programs which are deviating from the “norm” of the aid delivery system and truly working in a more collaborative way WITH local people to drive their own peace and development efforts (which we would see as positive!).

    If you know of examples we should look at, particularly if there is something written up on this from the perspective of those who are being supported, please let us know. I know they are out there and we want to learn from them to help those stuck in the system to see that there are always other ways of doing things (options!).

    We would love to hear more from you about how and in what context you use the term “positive deviance”.

    Warmest regards, Dayna.


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